Now we already know enough to better understand many phenomena of this universe in which the games of the impulses lead us to believe. The most evident phenomena, which finally led to the current state of development of our technology, are electricity and magnetism. Even if these are apparently two phenomena, it is actually only one and the same game that has to be discovered. Even matter is an “electromagnetic”
A “charged” sphere is a place around which the electron waves on the surface oscillate as harmoniously and rectified as around a proton. The result is, as we know, polarised space, i.e. a field which we have to call electrostatic field, properly speaking, because it remains on the spot after all. Now, let’s take a closer look at such a field (figure 18).
We recognise our “spirals“ which lend a special polarised order to the space. These spirals consist of two motional components. Firstly, we see the outward bound (radial) direction which we symbolised with straight arrows, secondly there is the lateral (tangential) component which can be represented by circles. Both directions are perpendicular to each other. We already named these two planes of action when we introduced the concept of the “electromagnetic wave“. For that reason, we want to call the outward bound arrows the electric field and the circles the magnetic
Both fields lie practically inside one another but will never become effective at the same time. Nevertheless we can say: we are dealing with an electromagnetic field. With this field we want to carry out some experiments. First we make it rotate. In doing so, we blur the outward bound arrows of the electric field, the circles, however - which are also moving away from the sphere - present a completely new picture as can be seen in figure 19.
This picture shows the familiar lines of force of a magnetic field. We observed its effects often and attributed its existence to little “molecular magnets”. At a higher school, we learned maybe that this field stems from the spin of the electrons; but we did not really comprehend it just because of that. This is to change now. We are extending our experiment a little by making the charged sphere revolve, i.e. we move it in a circle. When we visualise what is going to happen now, it will soon become apparent to us that a picture very similar to the one before has to come about (figure 20).
Again the arrows have blurred and we notice that they cancel each other out completely. The circles, however, only annihilated each other within the circle which we were drawing with the sphere. Outside of it they maintained their structure. Thus, we produced a magnetic field again - exactly the same that we know from every permanent magnet. Instead of moving a sphere we could also take a wire loop and let the electron waves (and with them the spatial polarisations they are causing!) flow down this loop. The physicist Oersted was the first to have this idea in 1820 already. He formed a wire loop and fed direct current to it. With the needle of a compass he detected a magnetic field and concluded that a magnetic field developed around every current-carrying conductor (figure 21).
We already know that electric charge is nothing but polarised space which can be defined as left-hand or right-hand. This polarisation is moving along with the charge - when the impulses of the electrons are following an ordered direction along the conductor. In that way a new polarisation is created running along the conductor. It goes without saying that this polarisation has a spin, too. Thus, there are two kinds of polarisation: the purely electrical one which moves perpendicularly away from the conductor and the magnetic one which follows the conductor. Between two identical conductors the perpendicular polarisation would cause resistance, i.e. repulsion (according to our model of encounters) when the charge is at rest. With a moving charge, however, this structure is dissipated into a new structure as shown at point 1 in figure 21a. It has the same spin all around which results in an overall motion around the conductor as is illustrated by the circles at point (2).
Therefore two conductors through which the current is flowing in the same direction are oscillating in the same sense between each other (figure 22). This time we are looking at the spins practically from the front. Then we see how the oscillations evade each other, thus an identical oscillation prevails but that also means: no resistance! The conductors are squeezed together by the universal pressure, i.e. they are apparently attracting each other! Since the oscillation which runs in the same direction can oscillate around both conductors, a mutual magnetic field develops surrounding both conductors..
The opposite is true for conductors through which the current flows in opposite directions (figure 23). Here the spins in-between won’t evade each other but they crash against one another and create resistance. Result: the conductors repel each other because their repulsion existing a priori is intensified and overcomes the universal pressure. Figure 23a shows the two different phenomena again from another perspective.
the conductors of a coil lying next to another attract each other. They
form a mutual magnetic field which surrounds them - for that reason, it
enters the coil at one end and exits
at the other end (figure 24).
Again the result is a magnetic field like that of a bar magnet, and therefore we know that the magnetic effect of a bar magnet has to be attributed to moving “charges“. It is a matter of purely superficial electron impulses which flow around the bar sorted in rank and file and polarise the space (figure 25).
26 shows that the lines of force of the bar magnet also enter at one end
and exit at the other end. When we look vertically onto the pole, i.e.
as depicted in figure 27, we should clearly see the polarisation (remember
figure 21a) flowing from pole to pole in our mind’s eye.
polarisation creates a closed circuit. Now we comprehend the behaviour
of the two poles towards each other immediately; they aren’t north or
south poles but spaces with left-hand or right-hand oscillation - and
again our familiar conditions of encounter apply: identical oscillation
accomplished by left-hand and right-hand spin leads to attraction (case
of encounter: penetration), we say: unlike poles attract each other!
Opposite oscillations (identical polarisations meet) lead to resistance,
i.e. to repulsion according to the guiding principle: like poles repel
each other! When we were learning these mnemonic sentence by heart at
school we certainly didn’t know their causal background at all!
Figure 28 shows how the circuit of two unlike poles can close. The apparent attraction, which now occurs, comes directly from the universe! When we turn one of the magnets around, opposite oscillations come across each other immediately and the repulsion of the poles overcomes this force from the universe! We can imagine this process quite vividly and he who feels like it can get himself two magnets to make some experiments on his own. He will suddenly understand their behaviour as never before. And we begin to suspect where these games will lead us: because with these magnetic fields we are actually increasing and decreasing nothing else but gravitation! But we will only fully comprehend this in the chapters “Inertia“ and
Well, what will happen if we put a conductor, which does not carry any current, into a magnetically polarised room? In the conductor, the electron waves usually move all over the place in total disorder. Well after all, electric spin and magnetic spin are closely coupled with each other (just like, for instance, the toothed wheel and the worm in the picture). When the conductor has been neutral before because its electron waves did not prefer any direction, we are now subjecting it to the order of the magnetic spins. The electron waves are forced to submit to this polarisation and are aligned. This condition, however, is already called charge! It does not require much fantasy now to imagine the result when we are moving the conductor within the magnetic field (figure 29).
In doing so, we are moving the conductor through the spirals of the magnetic field to the effect that the spirals of the electron waves are also provided with a movement along the conductor. The charge is moving, and the moving charge is nothing else but electric current! It now flows through the conductor and this process is called
When we are not moving the conductor, the spirals of the magnetic field for their part flow through the conductor aligning the electron waves. Again the interlacing of the polarisations takes effect and pushes the electrons to move on. They take “their” atoms along and in this way the conductor is moving in its longitudinal direction. This dynamic effect is called Lorentz force – after the physicist who discovered it. We can intensify this conductor movement by letting a current flow through the conductor. The current will of course get into a resistance situation with the spins of the magnetic field. This is nothing else but the reversal of the induction process, i.e.: movement causes current, current causes
This means we have done nothing less than invented the electric motor - if it did not exist already. The direction of the current determines the direction of the movement which gives expression to the strict coupling of the spins of space and electron. Figure 30 shows these connections.
When we put a conductor loop, in which the currents are flowing in opposite directions, into a magnetic field, the loop receives a rotational momentum (figure 31) because opposite motional forces are created. After all, the conductor loop itself creates a magnetic field as well which either repels or attracts the poles of the
With the polarisation of space by means of the spins and their coupling we hope to have gained a deeper understanding of the behaviour of matter which is predominantly determined by electric and magnetic effects. Electron waves are always the backdrop; all repulsive or attractive effects follow directly from the repulsion principle. Therefore two magnets which attract one another demonstrate directly the power of the cosmos surrounding us! In an intensified manner, two magnets which repel one another represent the general maxim of: all matter repels matter!
Already at this point, it proves itself clearly that the assumption of a pressure - or more correctly of a repulsion - instead of a “gravitation“ does not leave everything as it has been at all but that it can make processes explicable which could only be explained by inventing further forces before. We don’t have to continue to use invented forces and concepts like positive or negative and north or south pole as arguments. All polarisation effects described up to now arise casually and logically and always in accordance with one and the same principle!
Every kind of matter can be magnetised more or less. Some elements, in fact basically all of them, will start immediately to build up their own magnetic field under the influence of a magnet if their electron waves find sufficiently low resistance in the atomic range. The spin of this individual magnetic field is always opposite to the spin of the inducing magnetic field. For that reason, there will always be a repulsion which will be superimposed by the corresponding main effect. A typical example of this behaviour, which we call diamagnetism, is for instance bismuth. The predominant effect - attraction or repulsion as explained - on the other hand is called paramagnetism. It is marked by the exact coupling of electric and magnetic
Some elements, like iron, nickel, cobalt as well as the rare earths gadolinium, dysprosium, and erbium, or certain types of alloy, obey the magnetic field particularly thoroughly and tenaciously; they are ferromagnetic. How weak or how strong the alignment of electron waves can be understandably depends on the atomic structure of the elements. Every alignment can be destroyed again by the effects of disordered vibrations, like heat or mechanical shock. All ferromagnetic substances are of a crystalline structure, i.e. they are dominated by great order from the outset. The little molecular magnets of our scholastic wisdom are pure fiction, though, they just don’t exist.
When the alignment of electron waves is maintained in an element (or at least partially) we call it remanence or remanent or residual magnetism.
There are many other varieties of magnetism. They are all based on the same cause: the polarised space – or rather the polarised T.A.O.. For the same reason, there are the phenomena of electrostatics which are particularly easy to comprehend. For that reason, we want to examine them in more detail.