Let’s recapitulate: charge is polarised space; like charges lead to repulsion, opposite polarisations to attraction. Every kind of energy flow, like for example a closed circuit, is only possible when matching vibrations come together. From time to time, this encounter can be enforced or enabled by setting a vibration in advance. But first let’s take a look at figures 32 and 33:
When we mount two thin silver plates to a polarising (i.e. “charged”) sphere, the plates will adopt the same polarisation, too. Result: the plates repel each other! As can be seen immediately in figure 32 for a sufficiently well-known reason.
A battery supplies oscillations of opposite effect: plus = right-hand and minus = left-hand. Therefore opposite polarisations are fed to the plates of the interrupted circuit (figure 33). Result: they are apparently attracting each other because now they are pushed together by their environment (universal pressure and/or other fields)! As we will see in the following, right-hand and left-hand oscillations encounter each other even in the battery itself creating a continuous circuit which immediately makes the current flow when the plates are
Now there are elements - i.e. very particular atomic structures - which only allow certain polarisations, either only “right-handed” ones or only “left-handed” ones. When we put two of these elements together, the result is a predetermined direction of oscillation which will only admit a current conduction if the spin of the flowing oscillation matches the predetermined one, because otherwise resistance will arise (figure 34).
This goes certainly without saying but nevertheless we just described the principle of the diode.
When we arrange three layers according to the motto right-left-right (or left-right-left) and switch on two electric circuits as shown in figure 35, circuit 2 cannot flow via the L-sector before circuit 1 has not partially disturbed or rather superimposed the left-hand oscillation in the separating element with its stronger R-oscillation.
This disturbance can be modulated, i.e. vary in its magnitude. That which is flowing over the bridge established in the L-element - which should be very thin to enable the oscillation to cross over from R1 - via R2, maintains this modulation (the current is controlled without inertia) and, if it is desired, it can be even stronger than in the electric circuit 1 when a higher current conduction is transferred. With that we discovered an amplifier but it exists already and is called transistor. The elements used, which so persistently admit the current to pass in one particular direction only, are called semiconductors. Contrary to metals whose electron waves can oscillate at random, semiconductors have a structure which admits oscillations only in particular spots (the physicist calls them “holes“). From that, only one particular direction each is
But we wanted to talk about static electricity. When we look at the space polarisation of a charged sphere (figure 36) we come to the conclusion that the spins of the polarisation hinder each other a little. This hindrance is the lower the more space there is available for oscillating - as is the case on the smaller sphere on the right.
When the two spheres of figure 36 carry the same charge, the electrostatic effect of the smaller one is significantly higher, i.e. its field is stronger. A pear-shaped body (figure 37) exhibits the highest field intensity at its largest curvature. Small peaks can carry very high potentials for that reason. When we will figure out later that electrostatic effects are also important in the action of tiny molecules and atoms, we understand already that they can be stronger on these minute “spheres” than one would
The other way round, if one wanted to draw off electrostatic charges from the atmosphere, one would do well to chose a lighting rod that is as pointed as possible for the same
When we put an uncharged sphere into an electrostatic field, the sphere will adopt the polarisation in such a way that it will fit into the polarisation of the field (figure 38). That means the side close to the field becomes a left-hand oscillator if the field oscillates to the right. This results automatically from the fact that the right-hand spiral of the field is of course a left-hand one when seen from the sphere whereas further right-hand spirals continue on the other side of the sphere.
As it is, the sphere is divided into a “positive“ and a “negative“ charge. On it, a suitable potential prevails - and we call this process influence. It is easy to fathom because nothing else could happen in this case. When we take two spheres we can separate them after the influence took place and remove them from the field. Then they will actually carry opposite
This process becomes significant for us when we discover that the molecules of life adopt spin programmes, too...
An electric, spatial oscillation can even be preserved. Two plates oscillating in opposite directions maintain the oscillation that is between them even after the electric source has been removed because the oscillation cannot flow off (figure 39).
The preserved potential comes free again when we close the circuit. A capacitor works in such a simple way. So to speak, we can hold on to the oscillations between the plates of the capacitor by placing an insulator of a certain kind between the plates. In fact, this insulator does not allow the oscillations to flow off but it integrates the polarisation into its own structure in such a way that we can no longer draw it from the capacitor. When we remove the insulator it leaves the vibration behind and the capacitor is still charged. Insulators which are good at this game are called dielectrics. They readily adopt the oscillations on their surface but won’t keep up the oscillation without the capacitor plates. It is unnecessary to emphasise that the identical spins create the case of encounter “resistance” on the capacitor plates (figure 39, top) and that charging is not possible for that
All electron waves can be aligned magnetically to an extent differing from element to element. As we already emphasised, all forms of matter are of an electromagnetic nature. But when this designation was introduced or rather when it was derived from other words probably nobody suspected its significance. Light and heat also influence the order of electron waves. For example that’s why selenium becomes conductive under the influence of light or why heat can be transformed into electric current in a thermoelectric
A thermoelectric couple is a particularly simple object: two metals (one oscillating to the left and one to the right) are soldered together. Then it is only necessary to make one of them loose its vibrational equilibrium (which it found with the other metal) by heating it - and a current starts flowing via an electric circuit. With that the lost equilibrium is restored or at least sought. Here we also find the game of spatial polarisations within the spheres of influence of the fields (atoms) and of the situations of
Many crystals are composed of atoms (ions) which are oscillating to the right and to the left. Thus they already oscillate with themselves in a polarised form. In order to release these internal charges one only has to subject the crystal to pressure or to deform it; the internal polarisations are then coming to the surface and can be used as current conduction. The phenomenon is called piezoelectric effect. When the crystal is deformed by heat (in doing so it will expand irregularly) the process is called
Are we really to believe that electrons are a rigidly bonded building block of matter? After all we see that one can practically do with them whatever one feels like. It is even possible to centrifuge them, that means they can be very easily separated from a metal by moving the piece of metal very quickly. In that way the electron waves are left behind, so to speak (figure 40).
Light waves have similar properties, too, but we will discuss this in our chapter about the Theory of
Well, we have learned a lot about electricity by now. We realised that all causes of the electromagnetic forces are to be found in the polarised space and that the causes of this space lie in turn in the electron waves of which the atoms are composed. We comprehend the significance of electrostatic dynamic effects in material actions as well as the materialisation of magnetic
Every rotating or moving charge produces magnetic moments. As it is, every rotating proton has its magnetic field as well. For the most part, neutrons are expelled from proton bonds and will always take a little of the oscillation with them. Therefore a completely neutral neutron exists only in theory. Experimental neutrons exhibit almost always a magnetic dipole moment when they are rotating. The sense of rotation of a spherical field (“particle“) is also designated spin, by the way.
But before we go on to learn more about the games of matter in the next chapter “Hydrogen“ maybe we should think about what we have discussed up to now and take a look at figure 41: it shows atomic fields in 1 200 000-fold magnification - the play of waves on the lake of matter... The individual light spots correspond to various atoms stemming from the evaporisation of a submicroscopically small, pin-point sharp crystal wedge of