Proton and neutrons will always be squeezed only as tightly together as their resistance toward each other admits, that means until this resistance finds an equilibrium with the curving force. Before this happens, however, that repulsion, which exists out of range of the curving force, has to be overcome. The energy required for this comes for the most part from the motion of the fields or from the pressure of the environment. Barrier is the name we give to the point which has to be overcome before the curving force becomes effective. It is identical with the Coulomb Wall of the physicists and exists between all fields - there is even an equivalence between celestial bodies: the Roche limit. It goes without saying that this barrier does not have any particular significance for the individual impulses of the fields. Electron waves can easily jump across because the field of a proton does not develop spontaneously but is differentiated in time so to speak and evades an electron wave at convenient times. Physicists who regarded the electron as a particle were surprised by this effect and called it “tunnel effect”. It has been interpreted by means of complicated quantum-mechanical formulas but the basis of its existence is very easy to understand. The tunnel effect is rated as the most significant evidence for the nature of the electrons being waves and for the electrons only simulating a particle character outside of the atom. Analogous to that there are, of course, similar effects to be found with light because the particles of light, the photons, are also constantly doing things which they ought not to do if one seriously considered them to be
The barrier calls the tune in the dance of birth and death of matter. In all processes between spherical fields this barrier has to be overcome; therefore it always determines the occurring amounts of energy while the available magnitudes of the energy, for its part, determines the range and the strength of the barrier between the “particles”.
Every particle or every element of our matter is in truth a Something without substance, a motional event as illustrated with the spherical field. The polarised space around a proton or any other “charged particle” - we already called this space “electric field“ - is a mono-pole because it can adopt only one definite spatial spin orientation, i.e. either “right-hand” or “left-hand”. Matter and anti-matter never complement one another but annihilate each other wherever they meet because there is practically no barrier between them. Neither does the barrier ever occur in any process either in which two opposite poles or polarisations come
Well, how should we describe an atom on the basis of our knowledge? Contrary to previous opinions it has neither a nucleus nor a shell. Actually there is only a vibrating spherical field - which will propagate in a real spherical manner only in the ideal case. Every kind of nucleus results from the method by which it is to be determined. It is always the result of the resistance between the measuring field and the measured one. An alpha particle (we will get to know it yet) will meet with resistance in a very definite range which is defined by the alpha particle itself and where it will be deflected. Rutherford detected the size of the atomic nucleus in this way - but what he really detected is only an area of higher energy
density.1 The atomic shell is also defined by the perception of resistance of a necessary measuring field. For that reason, atoms adopt different sizes depending on the energy level of the available matter; they determine these sizes for each other, however permeate one another only until states of equilibrium are achieved. The intensity of the impulses controls the distances of the fields to one another. Since the harmonious impulses remain self-contained only very definite distances are possible (wavelengths, frequencies). These impulses, one running after the other, (we already described in the beginning that it have to be at least two impulses) are nothing but what the physicists call “electrons“ or “electron waves“. And even if they are not really waves, after all every impulse dashes off as solitary as the “wave” of a whiplash, so that we continue using the word “electron wave“ or
It is thus the electron wave which creates the spherical fields first and foremost but it propagates on every other suitable structure as well. Since it is a very strong energy quantum, the assumption that it is a - although very light - particle was surely very tempting. But one soon discovered that this particle had almost no dimensions, and there were clear indications in many experiments that it could be a wave. As in case of the light, that is why one brought oneself to the dualistic interpretation that the electron just had to be both simultaneously. But both is just plain wrong! It is neither a real wave nor a particle. And of course it is not the carrier of any charges
either.2 But because of its spatial polarisation it causes those effects which tempted the physicists into assuming the existence of
Although it was postulated that the electron was a solid building block of matter and bound to the atomic nucleus, it had to be disconcerting that electrons can be separated from their atomic bonds extremely easily. They evaporate from hot metals, they can be enticed by the light to emerge, they tunnel through energy barriers … and for the most part every impacting electron releases several others (secondary electrons). Surely this can only be explained by the dance of the impulses as we outlined it. Since polarisation and electron wave always belong together, the electron waves willingly follow preset polarisations (magnetic fields). We will comprehend it when we are taking a closer look on magnetism.
Even every electron wave can theoretically have a left-hand or a right-hand spin as well. But since all protons of this world are obviously “standardized” in a similar fashion, all electron impulses oscillate in the same direction. An electron oscillating in the opposite direction would be an anti-electron, i.e. a positron. A variety of impulse events which are producing electron waves without being bound to a spherical field - this is in principle possible, too – are producing a positron at the same time as well without exception - as we already discovered – and left-hand and right-hand spirals can come into existence at the same time. Such events rarely take place in nature - mainly in cosmic radiation - but can often be found in charged particle accelerators. For electron waves, the same, already known conditions of encounter apply. When an electron meets a positron, variant e) or c) will occur depending on the temporal displacement of the impulses. Thus in the first case, an unstable particle is created which can adopt the qualities of almost any kind of particle - conditional on the applied magnitude of energy. Such kinds of particles, quasi-atoms, are called positroniums. These artificially created disharmonious spherical fields often appear to be considerably more solid than protons but they only exist for the fractions of a second.
More often there is an encounter according to case c); it is called modification. In this case, the two impulses annihilate each other in fact but their energy is not lost without a trace but radiates in more or less straight shoves (without spin) from the place of meeting. Energy shoves of this kind already have a name on their own:
neutrino.3 Every time when energy gets lost on the back way, it is setting off through such shoves. Theoretically they can in fact disturb other impulses or indirectly impart vibration to the fields - i.e. interact with them - but their own spatial expansion is small (ca.
10-44 cm in diameter) and therefore there is not much that offers resistance. For that reason, neutrino shoves are travelling through the globe as if it wasn’t there. Only one in about
109 neutrinos bumps into a particle field, reacts with it and changes or destroys it in the process.
Since almost every impulse event inevitably causes linear shoves, the cosmos is literally filled with neutrinos. They pulse through our body without damaging it in the least. In the same way, they also travel through every kind of measuring device and therefore can be proven only indirectly. But for the most part, shoves of this or a similar kind are the basis for that field surrounding matter which causes the displacement of the field and consequently the effect of
Like any other form of impulse, neutrinos, for their part, can cause electron waves because the encounter modification can of course also take place in the opposite direction. Such electron waves can turn out to have significantly more energy than normal electrons – in that case we talk of heavy electrons (muons) - and from such electrons, on the other hand, an atom can develop which is a real energy giant compared to other atoms. A field of this kind is then called a muonic
It would be a thankless task to describe all the events which are possibly by means of the electrons. Practically all particles are able to transform into one another - a fact which causes quite a headache to the physicists. Yet this fact is very easy to comprehend if both the particle character and the wave property are negated - and if the impulse field is taken as basis just as in our
Neutrino shoves are not always impulses which are as straight as a die, sometimes they even have a spin. In this case the neutrino acts like a little electron, so to speak, and with that even an anti-neutrino becomes possible. For that reason, there are at least three kinds of neutrinos, of which only one can be really completely neutral (when I wrote down the book for the first time this fact was still unknown. In 1995, the physicist Frederick Reins was awarded the Nobel prize for the discovery of special differing types of neutrinos). To look for a symmetry in all these particles would be a homage to the angel of the bizarre...
Neutrinos come into existence spontaneously during decay or fusion processes. Like so many other particle formations they are not found as “building blocks” in the atom itself. Actually only the bigger sister electron exists without exception in the atom, and to be exact, practically every hydrogen nucleus consists of electrons because in principle there isn’t any difference between nucleus and shell after all as we would like to emphasise again. Proton and electron are a homogenous structure. Whether this structure is “bare” or whether it “contains” an electron, it is only the result of the various possible spatial polarisations which can occur and create an “ion“ with it.
De Broglie (as the first one?) defined the particles as waves of matter and the atom as a kind of diffraction halo. He had to cope with the difficulty to apply the parameters of the particle to the wave as well. As it is with a real wave, the phase velocity stands in a definite relation to the wave velocity. The result was that the phase velocities in electron waves seemed to be faster than the velocity of light. Only when looking at things in a relativistic way was the result a velocity that corresponded to a particle. This problem is not automatically applicable in our concept because there is no phase velocity in a series of purely chronological impulses. It is, however, clear that even in our considerations only such frequencies are allowed which don’t disturb each other since otherwise they would cancel each other out; they would interfere until they were annihilated. Consequently, a harmonious sequence has to be maintained; therefore, electron waves only occur in definite, self-contained paths - which correspond to Bohr's quantum conditions. These points are absolutely not in favour of a particle theory either but probably it will take some more time until the misleading designation can be deleted from the blueprint of matter (even if modern physicists already emphasise that they had never meant “particles“ in the literal sense).
Well, let’s say a few words about the neutron. So to speak, neutrons are islands of rest in the middle of a pulsating universe. They are manifestations of not being and this is meant in the deadliest sense of the word! In fact, on the one hand they act as an agent for the protons which can maintain their vibrations without disturbance because of them. On the other hand they will bring disharmony into the best proton structure if they hit it slowly enough. Since the neutron does not vibrate much on its own, it has an enormous power of intrusion or penetration but is less stable because it maintains a lighter structure. The neutron remains rigorously restricted only within atoms because it is practically held together by protons. When a neutron is isolated it will soon adopt oscillations; the physicist says it decays into a proton and an electron. On the other hand there are of course no anti-neutrons; this will probably shatter the nice symmetry which the physicists hoped to find in matter...
How big something is always depends on who is looking at the object
to determine its “mass”. According to theory, atomic nuclei are
minute. But to extremely slow “neutrons” the nucleus gives the
impression to be at least as big as the whole atom. For the first
time now, physicists confirmed this prediction by experiment.
student of the natural sciences learns that the indivisible bond of the electric charge is that of the electron. Two
years ago, however, scientists detected that under certain
circumstances charge can be distributed to “quasi-particles“ in
such a way that they will bear a third of the elementary charge. Now
physicists also found some with a fifth of the charge - a crucial
discovery which suggests to delete the indivisibility of the
electron’s charge from the physics textbooks for once and for all.
The neutrino predicted by
Wolfgang Pauli belongs to these elementary particles which are the
most difficult to detect. It reacts only very rarely with ordinary
matter, and for that reason, giant detecting instruments are
required for rendering proof of it. In Europe, such a detector is
operated in the Italian Gransasso Massif. If neutrinos have a mass
or not is not answered by the standard model of elementary particle
physics. Meant to be a “Saviour Particle” for inconsistencies in
decay processes, the neutrino, however, proves to be a tough nut to
crack for particle physics and jeopardises the standard model more
and more. As it is, experiments concerning the interaction of
neutrinos lead to results which cannot be explained with the
concepts of the physicists.
This makes some of them even think of a new fundamental force (“extra-weak
force“). About one percent of the neutrinos unfortunately deviate from the
predictions of the standard model (discovered by Sam Zeller,
Northwestern University in Illinois and Fermilab near Chicago).
According to the previous expert opinion, neutrinos interact with
the quarks of the atomic nuclei by means of the so-called
electroweak force which is, among other things, also responsible for
the so-called beta decay of the atomic nuclei. The experiment of
physicists of the Northwestern University now revealed that this
thesis probably has to be revised, thinks Jens Erler, a theoretical
physicist of the University of Pennsylvania.
Experiments which were
conducted at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico from
1993 to 1998 even suggest the existence of a fourth
type of neutrino which is not at variance with the standard model
either. (David Caldwell in Physical Review D, volume 64, 112007).
According to the standard model, there are three neutrinos at the
moment. In the first place, it was assumed that the three neutrinos
had no mass. This had to be revised in
order to explain by means of the transformation of anti
particles from muon neutrinos into anti-electron-neutrinos why so
much less electron-neutrinos from the sun arrive on Earth than were
calculated theoretically. The mass difference between each of the
two neutrino types involved can be determined from each of the three
neutrino measurements. The problem: from two mass differences the
third can be calculated - and this calculation does not correspond
with the experimental result. To crown it all, during the
neutrino-free double beta decay now observed by researchers two
neutrons transformed into two protons and two electrons
simultaneously without ejecting any anti-neutrinos. This decay
obviously violates the conservation of the lepton numbers, and one
would have to conclude that the neutrino is its own anti-particle.
If one attributes a mass to the neutrinos, which are as fast as the
light, one will collide with the SToR – a fact of which the physicists are obviously
not quite aware yet...