The universal pressure -

or the simple way of looking at very complicated Matters

PLANETS
# 2
Kepler's First Law


     As simple and ingenious as Newton’s law of gravitation may appear it did not uncover the cause of gravitation. A particular weakness of Newton’s dynamics (ND) consisted in the action at a distance across the empty space between the bodies attracting each other because this opinion did not explain for example why the attraction of the sun to the Earth is preserved even during a solar eclipse when the moon moves between Earth and sun. Against every logic is also the phenomenon that a force which acts linearly between the centres of gravity of the bodies - and is doing so from both sides! - decreases with the square of its distance. Moreover Newton’s second law of motion says after all that the mass of a body is the mass of its inertia. The bigger the mass of a body, the bigger therefore its inertia. So when two bodies with different masses are set in motion by the same force, the body with more mass will react slower than the one with less mass. This observation, however, does not apply in case of the acceleration due to gravity because we know of course that all bodies fall down at the same velocity. Newton himself tried to disguise the weakness of his theory by explaining that the gravitational force acting on a body increases with the mass of the body. It is doubtful if Newton could believe this strange explanation himself.

     Figures 46 and 81 already tried to illustrate the relationship of two celestial bodies - for example Earth and moon. Let’s take another close look at it - this time with the sun and a planet (figure 89 e):

Fig. 89 eFig.89 f

     Beforehand some inevitable clarifications: when we want to describe the properties of the field which displaces the field of a second body, the best thing to do is using the properties of light for this purpose. The universe is not just vaguely filled with light but we can distinguish the stars from each other by the directional relation between source and observer - this relationship is well described in the physics of geometrical optics. Just like the light of the stars pours down on us, the subtle shoves of the universal pressure field pour toward the sun from all sides. These shoves (we already compared them to neutrinos or gravitons, though they are surely smaller by an order of magnitude) don’t have a spin. When they have, we are dealing with a magnetic field (!). Even the phenomena of geometrical optics are very useful as an analogy for these universal pressure shoves, like for instance reflection (resistance), penetration, and absorption. Due to the lack of spin, however, the phenomena of wave optics (diffraction, refraction, interference etc.) do not take place! The game of the universal pressure with the celestial bodies is thus a game with “light” and “shadow“; i.e. their bodies shadow these subtle shoves. Shadows, incomplete shadows, complete shadows (umbras) - all these phenomena which we know from the light, especially from solar or lunar eclipses, also occur in the universal pressure field. Moreover we have to assume that these universal pressure radiation is partially let through by the bodies and that another part causes the acceleration of the body while a further part feeds energy to the body since it is absorbed. Because we won’t have the astrophysicists talk us into believing that stars and suns keep on shining and gravitating for millions of years without receiving any energy from anywhere. In truth there is a continuous give and take of energy (energy flux) through the universal pressure fields.

     The ingenious simplicity of Newton's laws of gravitation is now getting lost in the repulsion principle for the reason that we are no longer dealing with the effect of a force which is located in the centre of a “mass” but have to consider completely different factors. Thus not only the density of the bodies involved plays a role but also the material composition. The beautiful linear integration of the action of mass therefore has to give way to an exponential one. In addition there are the geometrical effects of the forces (“curving force“)... The matter is really not getting any simpler with this - but we can nevertheless use a simplified description because we want to explain relatively simple phenomena - like for example the movement of the planets - with it. 

Fig.89 g

     Figure 89 e shows the pressure shadow between the sun and a planet. The two bodies are pressed towards (!) each other in this shadow. This will always create the impression as if the smaller body is falling on the bigger body because it is subject to higher acceleration from the universal pressure due to its lower inertia. Since the planet is also subject to a corresponding counter pressure from the sun because of its size the rate of approach of the two bodies is always the same regardless of their mass ratio! That is to say the magnitude of this acceleration of free fall results always only from the ratio between the pressure of the central body and the universal pressure! It does absolutely not matter what is trapped in-between and “falls” towards the central body. But that had already been noticed by Galileo...

     Even if nothing “falls” onto the sun, it has a field around it as a result of its shadowing effect and of its individual pressure in relation to the universal pressure. “Falling” bodies move from the area of the incomplete shadow into the area of the complete shadow... i.e. the closer the body comes to the surface of the sun the lower the lateral influence of the universal pressure gets - and the higher the acceleration of free fall. In figure 89g we illustrated the field around the sun with grey circles. When we assume that the sun would eject matter into space, like launching a satellite, we would have to realise that there is really something like a “curved” space around the sun which determines the movements of this satellite. The missile is moving against the universal pressure and the universal pressure is pressing it back into the “shadow” - depending on the speed of the missile a path results which either leads back into the sun or ends in the endless expanses of the universe. The “borderline case” between these extremes is a (nearly) endless fall around the sun...

     Well, Kepler claimed in his first law that all planets were moving in ellipses whose focal point was the sun. If this was really the case, the orbits of the planets could actually be perfect circles. But when the sun launches a satellite - as we already know - the same force is acting upon the sun as the sun is exerting on the satellite: the sun is also repelled by the satellite. And the sun does exactly the same as the satellite: it goes into an orbit within its field, too. And even if this is quite an imperceptible movement because of the sun’s great inertia it has far-reaching consequences - reaching as far as the range of the invisible field because the field is certainly also moving. This minute modification propagates within the field (at the velocity of light) - and apart from the fact that this would be nothing else but a gravitational wave as demanded by Einstein - it has certainly an influence on the path of the satellite. After all, the modification in the sun’s field happens much faster compared to the velocity of the satellite, and since the sun is shifting in space together with its field, the satellite does not find the ideal orbiting condition anymore but is pushed back to the sun a little “earlier“ (in the aphelion). The result is an elliptical orbit! The same consequences apply to the sun. Its orbit becomes an ellipse, too (but a very small one). The two ellipses revolve around a point which is named centre of gravity (fig. 89 f) because this is where the two bodies - if they fell towards each other - would meet because of their different velocities, not attracted by gravitation but shoved together by the universal pressure! It is therefore not a “centre of gravity“ ... and in truth there is no such thing as a centripetal force or a centrifugal force or a gravitational attraction or anything like that. If we had to replace the alleged gravitation in the relationship of sun and Earth by a steel cable, the cable would be about 3,700 kilometres thick, in case of Jupiter it would even be 17,000 kilometres ... this makes the theory of gravitation rather implausible. But even if things are actually much simpler, they are not at all simpler to describe and least of all simpler to calculate. Newton’s equations on the other hand do not refer to the cause but to the effect - and for that reason, they are working quite precisely. But they fail, for example, when it comes to the rotational movement of very big masses, like galaxies, where even Kepler's laws are rather ignored. We will have to deal with that, too.

    In our universe, it is not masses which act upon each other by means of attraction but the fields of energy and impulse “tell” the space how it has to “curve” - and the “curved“ space tells the fields how they have to move... Yes, again we have a moment of sudden insight! Because that is nothing else but the main statement of the General Theory of Relativity! Newton noticed that the subject of the focal point was wrong ... and Einstein noticed that the subject of gravitation was wrong... And in the same way as Newton’s theory was both right and wrong by describing the effects on the basis of fictions (mass and gravitation), Einstein’s theory describes field events in an almost excessive way - only more on the basis of geometry and mathematics - the cause of which can very easily be explained with the existence of fields of matter and the repulsion principle.

    When the moon is between sun and Earth during a solar eclipse it cannot affect the attractive force of the sun because this force does not exist at all. But it can shadow the pressure from the sun a little and replace it with its own. While a gravitational modification in contradiction to Newton will be scarcely detectable in the complete shadow of the moon the weakening in the incomplete shadow is unequivocally measurable because in fact the boundary areas of the moon shadow the pressure from the sun but the pressure of the moon radiates spherically and therefore does not hit the area of the incomplete shadow on the surface of the Earth at the same time. For that reason, one can notice gravitational modifications at the beginning and at the end of a total solar eclipse - but during the occultation everything will stay within the framework of previous theories or the Earth’s gravitation will increase a little! 109

     We have to record as substantial facts: due to the mutual influencing of the fields (this also takes place when bodies “capture” one another) circular orbits are impossible in the universe. They will always be elliptical. Due to the circumstance that two fields are playing ping-pong with each other so to speak and are shoving each other to and fro between individual pressure and universal pressure, one has to conclude that the process is consuming energy. This is finally the end of the god-given gravitation! And before we rack our brains over these complicated connections we will examine Kepler’s other two laws in order to learn at last why the moon does not fall down and why it knows that it belongs to the Earth although it is also moving in the field of the sun...

 

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